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2D, 2.5D, and 3D X-Ray Inspection – What’s a “D”


The use of x-ray inspection in the electronics industry has gained wide adoption in the past 20 years, driven mainly by the development and use of bottom terminated components (BTC). The use of ball grid arrays (BGA), for example, allowed the development of standards and guidelines that dictate the maximum void size in each ball. In consequence, x-ray machine manufacturers developed solutions that address these requirements to became an integral part of the quality assurance function of modern electronic manufacturers.

However, as new x-ray technologies are introduced – from new algorithms to new hardware – users are faced with a growing range of options to choose from. Users need a solid technical background to understand these options to make an educated decision when acquiring x-ray inspection capabilities. Unfortunately, x-ray companies are not always clear about the pros and cons of each option. As a result, users end up buying too much or too little capabilities. In either situation, the user is left without the right x-ray inspection solution.

The goal of this presentation is to give the audience the tools needed to avoid making mistakes when acquiring x-ray inspection capabilities. We will set the record straight and clearly define critical concepts in x-ray inspection. The different x-ray modalities, 2D, 2.5D, and 3D x-ray inspection will be explained in details at the user level – no math involved. Most importantly, this presentation will cover when each modality must be utilized for a successful quality assurance program. A rich set of images and videos will be used to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each x-ray inspection modality.